Recep Tayyip Erdogan said citizens should not have “the slightest concern with regards to democracy, rule of law, fundamental rights and freedoms”.
The state of emergency would protect those values from attacks against them, he said, in a speech in Ankara.
The president praised those who were killed fighting against the coup as “martyrs”.
The nation would “never forget the bravery and sacrifice of those who lost their lives”, he said, describing “epics of heroic bravery throughout the night”.
Mr Erdogan said foreign nations should stay out of Turkish affairs, adding: “This nation has the right to determine our own destiny.”
The president was speaking after holding meetings of Turkey’s national security council and the cabinet in the capital.
Earlier, Mr Erdogan warned of further arrests and suspensions to come as Turkish authorities continued to pursue those they believed responsible for the thwarted putsch – the supporters of the US-based Turkish cleric Fethullah Gulen.
More than 50,000 state employees have been rounded up, sacked or suspended in the days since the coup attempt.
On Wednesday, 99 top military officers were charged in connection with the events of the weekend.
Officials continued to take action against university and school employees, shutting down educational establishments, banning foreign travel for academics and forcing university heads of faculty to resign.